About this guide
This guide contains tips for researching at the PUC library while you are off campus. It also contains a selection of downloadable PDFs of articles on cross-cultural differences in general as well as Geert Hoftstede's dimensions.
This guide will help you get started on your paper. For personalized assistance at any time, contact your subject specialist, Katy Van Arsdale. 
Off-campus library access
What you need to know:
  1. Because you are enrolled in a PUC class, you have access to all the online books, articles, videos, etc. that the library has to offer.
  2. To find sources for your studies, visit the library website and search your keywords in the Discovery search box at the center of the page. 
  3. You will be prompted to log in. Use your Canvas / PUC webmail password. Now you should be able to open any online book, article, or video.
  4. If you cannot log in, email your librarian or reference@puc.edu. 

A quick link to the PUC Library Discovery search is available here.
Discovery Search (EBSCO) Restricted Resource Some full text available

The full database list is also available if you would like to access Academic Search Premier, JSTOR, ScienceDirect, or any other specific database.
Articles on cross-cultural differences
These are just a few of the thousands of articles on cross-cultural differences that you can access full-text from the PUC Library. Use these articles to get yourself started thinking about the kinds of questions you want to ask about your host culture. To gather more articles and to search for specific keywords, use the Library's Discovery search.

Discovery Search (EBSCO) Restricted Resource Some full text available

1. Log into Discovery using the same username and password you use for webmail or Canvas.
2. Search for your keywords and then select articles that are available as PDFs or through "full-text finder." 
3. Email your librarian for help searching, finding, downloading, or anything else.

A sample list:

Atkins, David, et al. "Culture Shapes Empathic Responses to Physical and Social Pain." Emotion, vol. 16, no. 5, Aug. 2016, pp. 587-601. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1037/emo0000162. 

Cronk, Lee. "Culture’s Influence on Behavior: Steps toward a Theory." Evolutionary Behavioral Sciences, vol. 11, no. 1, Jan. 2017, pp. 36-52. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1037/ebs0000069. 

Hess, Ursula, et al. "Judging Facial Emotion Expressions in Context: The Influence of Culture and Self-Construal Orientation." Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, vol. 40, no. 1, Mar. 2016, pp. 55-64. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1007/s10919-015-0223-7. 

Kopelman, Shirli, et al. "Cooperation in Multicultural Negotiations: How the Cultures of People with Low and High Power Interact." Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 101, no. 5, May 2016, pp. 721-730. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1037/apl0000065.

Krys, Kuba, et al. "Be Careful Where You Smile: Culture Shapes Judgments of Intelligence and Honesty of Smiling Individuals." Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, vol. 40, no. 2, June 2016, pp. 101-116. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1007/s10919-015-0226-4. 

Qu, Yang and Eva H. Telzer. "Cultural Differences and Similarities in Beliefs, Practices, and Neural Mechanisms of Emotion Regulation." Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, vol. 23, no. 1, Jan. 2017, pp. 36-44. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1037/cdp0000112. 

Tamir, Maya, et al. "Desired Emotions across Cultures: A Value-Based Account." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 111, no. 1, July 2016, pp. 67-82. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1037/pspp0000072.

Moleiro, Carla, et al. "Autonomy-Connectedness in Collectivistic Cultures: An Exploratory Cross-Cultural Study among Portuguese Natives, Cape-Verdean and Chinese People Residing in Portugal." Personality and Individual Differences, vol. 104, Jan. 2017, pp. 23-28. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1016/j.paid.2016.07.031. 
Articles on Geert Hofstede's framework
Albers-Miller, Nancy D. and Betsy D. Gelb. "Business Advertising Appeals as a Mirror of Cultural Dimensions: A Study of Eleven Countries." Journal of Advertising, vol. 25, no. 4, Winter96, pp. 57-70. EBSCOhost, www.libproxy.puc.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=buh&AN=9703300784&site=eds-live. 
  • Across cultures, do systematic differences in advertising content mirror predictable differences in the cultures themselves? The authors designed a study to shed light on that question, using Hofstede's cultural model as a tool for analyzing cultures and using advertising appeals identified by Pollay. After coding advertisements in business publications from 11 countries for the appeals employed, they computed correlation coefficients relating the proportional use of each appeal arid Hofstede's cultural dimensions: individualism, uncertainty avoidance, power distance, and masculinity. The culture-reflecting quality of advertising was supported for 10 of 30 hypothesized relationships, and for an additional eight after removal of outliers from the data. 

Devine, Kevin, et al. "Implications of Culture on the Development of Control Systems." Ohio CPA Journal, vol. 59, no. 1, Jan-Mar2000, p. 37. EBSCOhost, www.libproxy.puc.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=buh&AN=3025017&site=eds-live. 
  • Discusses the potential impact of national culture on the success or failure of multinational control systems in business. Application of Hofstede's Five Dimensions of Culture to control systems; Selected countries' scores on Cultural dimensions, and their implications on control system design; Summary.

Fellows, Richard and Anita M.M. Liu. "Use and Misuse of the Concept of Culture." Construction Management & Economics, vol. 31, no. 5, May 2013, pp. 401-422. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1080/01446193.2013.794296. 
  • Culture is an all-pervading construct of human existence but its conceptualization is contested. As such, it is problematic to define or measure culture as different paradigms adopt radically different approaches. Emic approaches are, essentially, inward-looking and, via a constructivist paradigm, assert that a culture can be investigated validly only from that culture’s own perspective (idiographic). Etic approaches are concerned with an outside view, especially for cross-cultural investigations, and so tend to adopt a positivist perspective using surveys, models and dimensions (nomothetic). With increasing acceptance of varying conceptualizations, multiple methodologies and methods of research, founded on alternative philosophical stances, differing approaches to researching culture are pursued. However, several important issues of debate remain and are addressed, especially surrounding the seminal work of Geert Hofstede. Further concerns relate to levels of analyses (notably, the ecological fallacy and its reverse), scales of measurement for data collection and analysis, and their combination into indices. How people adapt to and accommodate different cultures is addressed, including structuring of organizational relationships (alliances, etc.) and the enduring debate over whether culture can be managed and the likely consequences of cultural management endeavours. Thus, the approach of positive criticism is adopted in this review of theory and literature to address the main issues in both the topic of culture and its philosophical underpinnings, and of how research methodologies and methods have been used in researching culture. Aspects of good practice and of less good practice are identified throughout to assist researchers and to stimulate further rigorous research into culture in construction. Primary findings emphasize the imperative of coherent and consistent uses of models and levels of analysis, care and rigour in use of scales and attention to the impacts of language and culture on data from respondents.

Hofstede, Geert. "National Cultures in Four Dimensions: A Research-Based Theory of Cultural Differences among Nations." International Studies of Management & Organization, no. 1/2, 1983, p. 46. EBSCOhost, www.libproxy.puc.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edsjsr&AN=edsjsr.40396953&site=eds-live. 
  • This report summarizes a large research project, involving 116,000 questionnaires, about the work-related value patterns of matched samples of industrial employees in 50 countries and 3 regions at 2 points in time. Half of the variance in the countries' mean scores can be explained by four basic dimensions, here labeled power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism versus collectivism, and masculinity versus femininity. These dimensions are offered as a framework for developing hypotheses in cross-cultural organization studies. Index scores of the countries on the 4 dimensions correlate significantly with the outcomes of about 40 existing comparative studies. 

Nielsen, Christine S. and Martin J. Gannon. "Preface: Cultural Metaphors, Paradoxes, and Cross-Cultural Dimensions." International Studies of Management & Organization, vol. 35, no. 4, Winter 2005/2006, pp. 4-7. EBSCOhost, www.libproxy.puc.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=buh&AN=20301846&site=eds-live. 
  • This article reports the impact that Geert Hoftstede has had on the field of cross-cultural management. The field has flourished, due in large part to the influence of Hofstede's classic study of 53 national cultures. His research indicated that they can be scored and ranked on five dimensions, such as individualism--collectivism and femininity--masculinity. Hofstede's scales, and ones like it, have opened up the possibility of testing a wide range of hypotheses. Two other important studies in this tradition include the GLOBE study of sixty-two nations and the fourth wave of the World Values Survey.

Orr, Linda M. and William J. Hauser. "A Re-Inquiry of Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions: A Call for 21st Century Cross-Cultural Research." Marketing Management Journal, vol. 18, no. 2, Fall2008, pp. 1-19. EBSCOhost, www.libproxy.puc.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=buh&AN=36403581&site=eds-live. 
  • Given the impact of Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions over the past quarter of a century, many scholars and practitioners have utilized these dimensions. However, numerous researchers have questioned his methodology, while others misused the dimensions in terms of the original purpose. Yet surprisingly, very few studies have performed an exact replication. This study summarizes Hofstede's work and critiques his crass-cultural model. In order to test Hofstede's constructs on different populations, three quantitative analyses were performed using domestic U.S., Asian, and Australian samples. This study found serious problems with Hofstede's factor structure. Additionally, the study suggests the need for re-examining the cultural dimensions within the global information based context of the early 21st century. This is not meant to criticize Hofstede, but instead to pinpoint fallacies to enable researchers to build from his work in more appropriate directions.
Subject Specialist
Picture: Katy Van Arsdale

Katy Van Arsdale
Special Collections Librarian
Tel: 965-6244

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