What this guide is about

This guide contains links to primary source documents and library books (that provide scholarly material as well as printed primary sources) on topics related to HNRS 380 Seminar: Race & the American Century.

Navigate this guide by using the Table of Contents to jump to a section, or scroll through alphabetical lists.

If your topic is not represented here or you need help finding more, call your librarian at x6244 or email kvanarsdale@puc.edu. 

Image: Cover of Theater Programme for Israel Zangwill's play "The Melting Pot," 1916. University of Iowa Libraries Special Collections Department.
Primary Sources: Personal Experience
History and Memory

Oral History Interviews (Hope College/Holland Joint Archives).  An extensive collection of oral history transcripts covering a variety of events, ethnic groups, and citizens of Holland, Michigan. Includes sections on members of the Hispanic community (1990), Dutch immigrants (1992), Hispanic residents (1993), and Asian and African American Residents (1994).

Hoover Institution Library & Archives contains collections of digitized primary source material from the mid-20th century, arranged by subject. Look for sets of documents on the topics of Jewish American life, student protests, relief and refugees, and more.

Immigration History Research Center Archives. The IHRCA is a renowned archives and library for the study of immigration, ethnicity, and race. The collections' strengths are first and second generation immigrants and displaced persons who came to the USA from central, eastern, and southern Europe; the eastern Mediterranean; and late-20th and early 21st century immigrants and refugees. Materials vary from print to manuscript to born-digital. They include personal papers as well as organizational records of ethnic and immigrant-formed groups, and of social service providers.

Library of Congress American Memory Project: the American History Collections contain digitized documents, photographs, cartoons, correspondence, and other ephemera from Library of Congress collections on the topic of American History. Use the filter choices on the left hand side of the page to limit your results by format or subject, or browse all 84 available collections.

Smith College Libraries Sophia Smith Collection. This is a comprehensive list of oral histories in the Sophia Smith Collection. It includes individual oral histories; oral histories found within collections of personal papers; and oral history projects. The oral history projects cover such topics as the suffrage, feminist, civil rights and reproductive rights movements; women in social work and medical professions; grassroots activists; Italian immigrants; and women in war.

Minority Experiences in America

African Activist Archive Project from Michigan State University is preserving and making available online the records of African American peoples' activism against colonialism, apartheid, and social injustice from the 1950s through the 1990s. The website includes a growing online archive of historical materials including pamphlets, newsletters, leaflets, buttons, posters, T-shirts, photographs, and audio and video recordings; personal remembrances and interviews with activists; and an international directory of collections deposited in libraries and archives.

The American Jewish Archives hosts several online exhibits that feature digitized items documenting the Jewish experience in the United States. One exhibit on significant documents is particularly worth a close look.

Chicago Ethnic Arts Project Collection. The Chicago Ethnic Arts Project survey was conducted in 1977 by the American Folklife Center at the request of the Illinois Arts Council to assess and document the status of ethnic art traditions in more than twenty ethnic communities in Chicago, and was jointly sponsored by both organizations. The collection consists of approximately 344 sound recordings, 14,141 photographs, 269 folders of manuscript materials, 2 videorecordings, publications, ephemera, administrative files, and field notes.

Chinese American Exclusion/Inclusion. Browse this New York Historical Society online exhibit which incorporates documents, photographs, and other primary sources tracing the history of Chinese immgiration to the US and the challenges that Chinese Americans have faced.

The Chinese Historical Society of America. Visit their online exhibits to explore digitized copies of primary source material presented on several topics, from the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake to railroad building to Chinese-American civil rights.

The Chinese in California, 1850-1925. This collection includes over 8,000 photographs, original art, cartoons and other illustrations; letters, excerpts from diaries, business records, and legal documents; as well as pamphlets, broadsides, speeches, sheet music, and other printed matter. These documents describe the experiences of Chinese immigrants in California, including the nature of inter-ethnic tensions. 

Densho Japanese American Archives. These primary sources document the Japanese American experience from immigration in the early 1900s through redress in the 1980s with a strong focus on the World War II mass incarceration. The archives are growing as Densho continues to record life histories and collect images and records. 

Japanese American Relocation Digital Archive (JARDA). The Japanese American Relocation Digital Archives (JARDA) contains thousands of primary sources documenting Japanese American internment, including diaries, letters, photographs, War Department documentation, and oral histories. 

National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI) Archive Center. The NMAI Heye Foundation has an extensive collection of photographic materials depicting the indigenous peoples of the Western Hemisphere. They can be searched by keyword in the Smithsonian online database. Try search terms like "reservation," "Cherokee" or other tribe name, or "American Indian." 

The South Asian American Immigrant Archive. SAADA (South Asian American Digital Archive) is an independent national non-profit organization working to create a more inclusive society by documenting, preserving, and sharing stories that represent unique experiences. Browse their digitized records by theme or subject, such as activism, race, or community.

U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services historical documents. Browse several collections of digitized immigration and citizenship documents, specific individual records, and contextual background information about changes to immigration law over time.

Social Movements and Reform

The 1964 Freedom Summer Digital Collection from the Wisconsin Historical Society provides access to over 40,000 pages of official records of organizations, personal papers of movement leaders, letters, racist propaganda, diaries, images, newsletters and more. Visit "view the collection" to browse and search documents.

The 1967 Newark Civil Disorders from Rutgers School of Law. The hearing transcripts of the Governor's Select Commission on Civil Disorder (Lilley Commission) offer first hand accounts from over a hundred witnesses to the events that have come to be known as the Newark riots or civil disorders. Beginning on the evening of July 14, 1967 and lasting through July 17th, violence in the City of Newark claimed 23 lives and destroyed ten million dollars of property. The collection includes approximately 6,000 pages of hearing transcripts and associated reports.

Baltimore '68: Riots and Rebirth, an online exhibit created by the University of Baltimore, provides hours of oral histories, galleries of photographs, and contextual essays explaining the riots that took place in Baltimore in the days following the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. 

The Civil Rights Digital Library, provided by the University of Georgia, promotes an enhanced understanding of the Movement by helping users discover primary sources and other educational materials from libraries, archives, museums, public broadcasters, and others on a national scale.

Free Speech Movement Archives at UC Berkeley features images, oral histories, text, and media documenting student protest, civil rights, and political activism.

The John Novak Digital Interview Archive consists of interviews about immigration, migration, and the Civil Rights Movement. The interviewees, who range in age from 20 to 90, speak of their experiences moving to and within the United States.

Library of Congress Civil Rights History Project. The activists interviewed for this project belong to a wide range of occupations, including lawyers, judges, doctors, farmers, journalists, professors, and musicians, among others. The video recordings of their recollections cover a wide variety of topics within the civil rights movement, such as the influence of the labor movement, nonviolence and self-defense, religious faith, music, and the experiences of young activists. 

Public Opinion on Civil Rights: Reflections on the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Sponsored by Cornell University, the Roper Center for Public Opinion Research provides survey data about public reactions to historic events. This page specifically analyzes several sets of data evaluating how the American public viewed the Civil Rights act (whether it was positive or negative overall) from 1964 to the present. 

"Records of Rights," an online exhibit by the National Archives & Records Administration, which features primary source records documenting the ongoing struggle of Americans to define, attain, and protect their rights (1700s-present).

The Rosa Parks Papers at the Library of Congress. The papers of Rosa Parks (1913-2005) span the years 1866-2006, with the bulk of the material dating from 1955 to 2000.  The collection, which contains approximately 7,500 items in the Manuscript Division, as well as 2,500 photographs in the Prints and Photographs Division, documents many aspects of Parks's private life and public activism on behalf of civil rights for African Americans.

Social Reform: 1950s-1970s, an online exhibit via Calisphere. From the period of the 1950s through the 1970s, struggles for civil and social rights, equality, and justice swept the United States. In 1965, feelings about racial inequality and economic and social injustice boiled over into widespread violence for the first time in Los Angeles's African American community of Watts. The community's transformation from angry frustration to hopeful growth is just one example of what was taking place in similar neighborhoods across the country during this tumultuous time.
Primary Sources: Images, Video, & Music
Images: Cartoons, Advertisments, & Photographs
AAEC Editorial Cartoons at the University of Southern Mississippi Library. The Editorial Cartoon Digital Collection contains examples of the work of member artists of the American Association of Editorial Cartoonists (AAEC). With more than 1000 cartoons representing more than 50 cartoonists, the digital collection is still growing. Created primarily in the 1960s and 1970s, the cartoons reflect changes in American social and political attitudes and provide artistic commentary on such topics as the Civil Rights Movement, Watergate, the Vietnam War, government bureaucracy, taxes, and political corruption.

Ad*Access from Duke University Libraries features over 7,000 U.S. and Canadian advertisements covering five product categories - Beauty and Hygiene, Radio, Television, Transportation, and World War II propaganda - dated between 1911 and 1955.  This collection of advertising media can be searched by date, to narrow results to post-war advertisements. 

Ad Views from Duke University Libraries provides access to thousands of television commercials created or collected by the D'Arcy Masius Benton & Bowles (DMB&B) advertising agency, dated 1950s - 1980s.

All-American ads. Books of print advertisements from the 1900s-1980s, available in the library.

Ansel Adams's Photographs of Japanese-American Internment at Manzanar. From the Library of Congress. In 1943, Ansel Adams (1902-1984), America's most well-known photographer, documented the Manzanar War Relocation Center in California and the Japanese-Americans interned there during World War II. For the first time, digital scans of both Adams's original negatives and his photographic prints appear side by side allowing viewers to see Adams's darkroom technique, in particular, how he cropped his prints.

Cartoon Drawings at the Library of Congress. This collection offers more than 9,000 original drawings for editorial cartoons, caricatures, and comic strips spanning the late 1700s to the present, primarily from 1880 to 1980. The subject matter depicted in the cartoons ranges widely, from accidents to zebras, with plentiful coverage of civil rights, international relations, presidential elections, taxes, and wars. 

Duke University Libraries, keyword search "Discrimination." Scroll through all results from advertisments, photographs, and sheet music at Duke University that has to do with acts of discrimination throughout history. Try also keyword searches "immigration," "racism," and "Civil Rights."

National Library of Medicine Digital Images can be searched by subject "United States" and limited by date range to show images and documents from the development of medicine in the 20th century. 

Video: Newsreels, Commercials, & Interviews

Academic Video Online (Proquest/Alexander Street)  The Alexander Street: American History database enables research on key themes, events, and historical eras in U.S. History from the colonial period through the 21st Century. A vast collection of documentaries, newsreels, public affairs videos, and archival footage allows students and researchers to compare viewpoints and get personal and expert accounts on key topics such as the Cold War, the Civil Rights movement, and the Vietnam War-and people--presidents, key leaders and activists. Search by keyword or browse by discipline (subject).

African American Oral History Collection at the University of Louisville Libraries contains interviews conducted in order to document the many aspects of life in Louisville (prior to the 1970s), particularly as experienced by African Americans. Businessmen, educators, politicians, doctors, historians, musicians, and other civic leaders of various kinds were interviewed. Interviews range between 30 minutes and 4 hours long. The interviewees talk about parents, upbringing (often outside Louisville), experiences in school, careers, and their achievements. They discuss everyday life as well as the big events in the history they lived. 

Music: Recordings & Sheet Music
African-American Band Music & Recordings, 1883 to 1923. From the Library of Congress, the core of this collection consists of "stock" arrangements for bands or small orchestras of popular songs written by African Americans. In addition, we offer a smaller selection of historic sound recordings illustrating these songs and many others by the same composers.

Hispano Music and Culture of the Northern Rio Grande: The Juan B. Rael Collection. This collection documents the musical heritage and cultural traditions of the Hispano residents of the portion of the Northern Rio Grande region spanning Northern New Mexico and Southern Colorado. 

The Library of Congress Celebrates the Songs of America. The Songs of America collection allows you to explore American history as documented in the work of some of our country's greatest composers, poets, scholars, and performers. From popular and traditional songs, to poetic art songs and sacred music, the relationship of song to historical events from the nation's founding to the present is highlighted through more than 80,000 online items.

Omaha Indian Music at the Library of Congress. Presented here are selections from the American Folklife Center's collections documenting Omaha music traditions. The sound recordings include 44 wax cylinder recordings made in the 1890s, 323 songs and spoken-word segments from the 1983 Omaha harvest celebration pow-wow, 24 spoken-word segments from an interview with an Omaha elder in 1983, 25 songs and speeches from a performance by members of the Hethu'shka Society in 1985, and 61 spoken word segments from an interview conducted with an Omaha musician in 1999. 

Protest Music of the 1960s: See this list of artists and song titles arranged by subjects such as "Condemnation of the U.S. Selective Service," "Condemnation of the Vietnam War," and "Criticism of the Justice System." 

Rock & Roll Hall of Fame "Greatest Festival Moments" curated collection contains pages that link to images, documents, audio, and video from festivals from Newport Jazz 1960 to Woodstock 1969 to Coachella 2012 and everything in between. Use the tabs across the top of the page to navigate.

Maps & Atlases 
Atlas of United States foreign relations / by Harry F. Young ; editing and production Colleen Sussman. Published 1983.

Congressional district atlas (districts of the 90th Congress), 1966.

The historical atlas of United States Congressional districts, 1789-1983 / author and editor, Kenneth C. Martis.

Rand McNally atlas of the United States.
Primary Sources: Government Documents
AMDOCS: Documents for the Study of American History provides full text online access to documents from the 15th Century on, arranged in chronological order. Click the decade you are interested in studying to find presidential papers, Supreme Court decisions in landmark cases, text of well known speeches, and more. 

The American Presidency Project (APP), non-profit and non-partisan, is the leading source of presidential documents on the internet. The archives contain 118,828 documents and are growing rapidly. The APP, hosted at the University of California, Santa Barbara, has been a collaboration between John T. Woolley (UCSB) and Gerhard Peters (Citrus College) since 1999. Select "Documents" in the top navigation bar to begin accessing presidential papers.

FBI Reports. These documents report statistics and analyze the prevelance of terrorism, arrests, gangs, fraud, and more over the last 30 years. Most of the reports are from the 2000s and forward, but some specifically report on the 1950s-1990s.

Immigration to the United States, 1789-1930. Provided by Harvard University, this online exhibit contains a searchable database of digitized documentation from the Chinese Exclusion Act and the Dillingham Commission, as well as additional links to related digital resources on immigration to the US, including vital materials on the African diaspora. Consider browsing by topic to see personal experiences of immigration highlighted.

JFK Presidential Library online exhibit, "1963: The Struggle for Civil Rights." This interactive timeline of the events of 1963 provides access to key documents behind moments in the Civil Rights Struggle, such as the text President Kennedy's April address presented alongside documentation of the public's response to his speech. See also the JFK Library's Oral History collection.

Military & Government Collection (EBSCO) Restricted Resource Some full text available
History, Political Science. 300 full-text titles, indexing to an additional 400. Covers all branches of the U.S. military and government.

Mount Holyoke College International Politics is a collection of primary source documents about U.S. Foreign Policy compiled by a professor of International Politics. The link will lead you to a set of foreign policy subjects, time periods, etc. from which you can access full-text of primary sources.

National Security Archive. An independent non-governmental research institute and library located at The George Washington University, the Archive collects and publishes declassified documents obtained through the Freedom of Information Act. The Archive also serves as a repository of government records on a wide range of topics pertaining to the national security, foreign, intelligence, and economic policies of the United States.

ProQuest Military Collection Restricted Resource Some full text available
Aviation, History, Political Science. 400 full-text titles, indexing to an additional 150. 1990-present, selected titles as far back as 1920. Content covers all government and military branches, as well as international relations, political science, criminology, defense, aeronautics and space flight, communications, civil engineering.

U.S. State Department Office of the Historian. Visit this site to access digitized volumes of foreign relations documentation arranged by presidential administration.
Primary Sources: News & Statistics
ABI-Inform Complete (ProQuest) Restricted Resource Some full text available
Use this database to search full text newspaper and magazine articles from 1911 to the present. Topics tend to be economic or business-related.

C-Span provides a keyword searchable online library of newsreels up to the present day. 

LexisNexis Academic [now Nexis Uni] Restricted Resource Some full text available
Multi-subject, History, Business, Political Science, Journalism, Social Work. 15,000  business, legal, and news sources. Includes The New York Times, The Washington Post. Information for over 80 million companies.

Newspaper Source (EBSCO) Restricted Resource Some full text available
Multi-subject, Journalism, Communication, Film & Television, History. 40 full-text U.S. and international newspapers, selective full text for 400 regional newspapers. Includes full-text television and radio news transcripts.

Newswires (EBSCO) Restricted Resource Some full text available
Multi-subject, Business, Communication, Journalism. Real-time access to world-wide news reports from Associated Press, United Press, CNN, and more. An index to the content is held for a rolling 30-day archive.

The New York Times.
Searchable full-text archives available after creating an account. Must be using PUC wifi for the group pass account creation to work. Call the library at 707-965-6241 for help.

The American census handbook / Thomas Jay Kemp.

Bureau of Justice Civil Rights Statistics. This online report examines civil rights claims based on race, age, sex, or national origin involving employment, welfare, housing, voting, or other civil rights discrimination issues. It covers civil rights claims litigated in federal district courts from 1990 to 2006.

Bureau of Justice Race and Ethnicity Statistics. The National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) collects information on victimization characteristics including race and ethnicity. The survey's findings are reported here.

Center for Immigration Studies Fact Sheets. The Center for Immigration Studies is an independent, non-partisan, non-profit research organization founded in 1985. It is the nation's only think tank devoted exclusively to research and policy analysis of the economic, social, demographic, fiscal, and other impacts of immigration on the United States. Explore more than just the fact sheets (statistical analysis of immigrant populations) to see reports, personal testimonies, and panel transcripts on immigration issues. 

Congressional district data book (districts of the 88th Congress; a Statistical abstract supplement. Prepared under the direction of Edwin D. Goldfield, chief, Statistical Reports Division.

Demographic Trends in the 20th Century, a 200-page report authored by the US Census Bureau.

Historical statistics of the United States, colonial times to 1970.

Seventeenth census of the United States: 1950.

United States Census Bureau: Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts. Contains historical census reports for 1790-2000 as well as analysis of census findings throughout the 19th and 20th centuries. 

This database allows you to search for statistics on any topic by keyword. Statista Restricted Resource Some full text available Resource contains images
Subject Specialist
Picture: Katy Van Arsdale

Katy Van Arsdale
Special Collections Librarian
Tel: 965-6244

Book Search
Search for in
Books and ebooks
Available at PUC: Use keywords to search the library catalog or scroll through lists of books by subject. Most of the links below will open a list of narrower topics. Clicking a narrower topic will open a list of books you can check out or read full text online.
This is just a sample list. Try your own catalog searches by topic ("immigration"), a person's name ("Woodrow Wilson"), or keyword phrase ("attack on Pearl Harbor"). 
  1. Black migration
  2. Christianity and politics -- Seventh-Day Adventists.
  3. Civil rights movements -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
  4. Civil rights -- Religious aspects -- Christianity
  5. Immigrants -- United States
  6. Indians, Treatment of -- North America.
  7. Indians, Treatment of -- United States.
  8. Johnson, Lyndon B. (Lyndon Baines), 1908-1973.
  9. Kennedy, John F. (John Fitzgerald), 1917-1963.
  10. King, Martin Luther, Jr., 1929-1968.
  11. Popular culture -- History -- 20th century.
  12. Seventh-Day Adventists -- Political activity.
  13. Social movements -- United States.
  14. Truman, Harry S., 1884-1972.
  15. United States -- foreign relations
  16. United States -- Emigration and immigration -- History
  17. United States -- Ethnic relations.
  18. United States -- Politics and government -- 1945-
  19. United States -- Race relations.
  20. Vietnam War, 1961-1975 -- United States.
  21. X, Malcolm, 1925-1965.

Books about the 1900s Twentieth century
Books about the 1910s Nineteen tens.
Books about the 1920s Nineteen twenties.
Books about the 1930s Nineteen thirties.
Books about the 1940s Nineteen forties.
Books about the 1950s Nineteen fifties
Books about the 1960s Nineteen sixties
Books about the 1970s Nineteen seventies
Books about the 1980s Nineteen eighties
Books about the 1990s Nineteen nineties

Available online: Search digital libraries.
HathiTrust Digital Library Unrestricted Resource Some full text available Contains scanned historical works, some full text.
Google Books Unrestricted Resource Some full text available Scanned books and magazines, some full text. 
Open Library Unrestricted Resource Some full text available Searchable database of books, a few full text, with links to WorldCat to borrow physical copies.

Reference Sources
These are examples of general reference sources available through the PUC library. You can search the catalog for more options, especially by combining keywords that describe a time period, historic figure, social movement, or century with keywords like "encyclopedia," "map," "handbook," or "reference."

General reference works
The complete book of U.S. presidents / by William A. DeGregorio.

Congress and the Nation; a review of government and politics in the postwar years.

History of immigration to the United States (see list of books).

History of racism in the United States (see list of books).

State by state : a panoramic portrait of America / edited by Matt Weiland & Sean Wilsey.

The value of a dollar : prices and incomes in the United States, 1860-2009 / by Scott Derks.

The World almanac and book of facts.

The world almanac of the U.S.A. / Allan Carpenter and Carl Provorse.

Women's rights almanac.

Britannica Academic: The Online Encyclopedia Restricted Resource Some full text available Resource contains images ‚Äč

The American Heritage encyclopedia of American history / general editor, John Mack Faragher.

Encyclopedia of American cultural & intellectual history / Mary Kupiec Cayton, Peter W. Williams, editors.

Encyclopedia of American history / edited by Richard B. Morris and Jeffrey B. Morris.

Encyclopedia of race and racism [ebook] / Patrick L. Mason, editor in chief. Racism -- Encyclopedias.

Funk & Wagnalls New World Encyclopedia (EBSCO) Restricted Resource Some full text available

Historical encyclopedia of U.S. presidential use of force, 1789-2000 [electronic resource] / edited by Karl R. DeRouen, Jr.

Biography in Context (Gale) Restricted Resource Some full text available

Search Collections of Reference eBooks
Gale Virtual Reference Library Restricted Resource Some full text available

Oxford Reference Online Restricted Resource Some full text available
Citing Sources
Turabian, Kate.  A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations . 2013.
Access the online Turabian quick guide. 

Chicago manual of style:
Official website Quick Guide
Guide to the Chicago manual from OWL at Purdue

You can browse the table of contents on the Chicago manual of style's official website. To read further, check the library copies, linked below.

The Chicago manual of style, 15th ed.

The Chicago manual of style, 16th ed.