What this guide is about:
Image Credit: Luther vor Cajetan kolorierter Holzschnitt 1557
This webpage provides links to reliable online information about Reformation characters for the class HIST/RELH 321. You will find well-researched and trustworthy encyclopedia articles, videos, ebooks, and websites. These links are good for an introduction to each character. More information is available through the library in books and articles. If you need help, ask your librarian or professor anytime.

Image credit: Luther vor Cajetan kolorierter Holzschnitt (1557).
Andreas Karlstadt

Andreas Bodenstein von Karlstadt woodcut portrait, 1541/42.
  1. Encyclopedia Britannica article
  2. Reformation 500 article and timeline that places Andreas Karlstadt in context. 
  3. Interactive timeline of Karlstadt’s life and work, created by the editors of a book about him. 
  4. An article by an Adventist scholar at Union College, published in 2006, about how perhaps Karlstadt believed in the Sabbath. The article is long (23 pages), but the first few pages give a good introduction and biography. 
  5. An article originally published in Signs of the Times about Karlstad. 
Conrad Grebel

Conrad Grebel. Artist's concept painted by Oliver Wendell Schenk, 1972. Image courtesy of Laurelville Mennonite Church Center.
  1. Encyclopedia Britannica article
  2. Anabaptist-Mennonite Encyclopedia article on Grebel. 
  3. "Conrad Grebel drew crowds in Switzerland," article by Dan Graves for Christianity.com. Published May 2007.
  4. Text of a letter from Grebel to other church leaders, which describes his views on faith and Christianity. Particularly interesting is his paragraph about how singing in church is unbiblical. 
Edward Tudor

Portrait of King Edward Tudor by William Scrots, 1550.
  1. Encyclopedia Britannica article. 
  2. British Royal Encyclopedia entry on Edward VI. 
  3. British National Archives document from King Edward VI’s Privy Council, outlining religious reforms. 
  4. Pages from Edward’s diary, digitized and placed online by the British Library. 
  5. A National Portrait Gallery article that analyzes four portraits of King Edward, particularly focusing on how he tried to look like his father. 
Elizabeth Tudor

Elizabeth I, oil on panel attributed to George Gower, c. 1588.
  1. Encyclopedia Britannica article.
  2. History Channel video of Elizabeth I fast facts (3 minutes).
  3. British Royal Family website page on Elizabeth I. 
  4. Interactive timeline by the BBC that walks through Elizabeth's life and reign.
Erasmus of Rotterdam

Portrait of Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam by Hans Holbein, 1523. From the National Gallery, London.
  1. Encyclopedia Britannica article. 
  2. Article by Christianity Today
  3. Stanford University Encyclopedia of Philosophy
  4. Short article about Erasmus from the Hanover College Historical Review, written by editor Tammy Graham. 
Frederick of Saxony

Frederick of Saxony portrait by Lucas Cranach the Elder, from the Lichtenstein Museum, 1532.
  1. Encyclopedia Britannica article
  2. Emory University School of Theology article with quotes from an original letter by Frederick of Saxony. 
  3. Reformation 500 article and timeline that places Frederick of Saxony in context. 
  4. Article from The Canadian Lutheran magazine, published in 2016. 
Heinrich Bullinger

Heinrich Bullinger portrait by Hans Asper, 1550.
  1. Encyclopedia Britannica article. 
  2. Article about Bullinger, written by the virtual museum of Protestantism. 
  3. Three letters from Lady Jane Gray written to Bullinger (digitized and linked here). 
  4. Article by Regula Boscher about how Bullinger’s wife used to be a nun, and he had to convince her to leave the order to marry him. 
Henry Tudor

Henry VIII, oil on wood by Hans Holbein the Younger, c. 1534–36; in the Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía, Madrid.
  1. Encyclopedia Brittanica article.
  2. Encyclopedia article in New Advent, a Catholic encyclopedia.
  3. British National Archives online collection of articles about Henry VIII as well as digitized copies of documents and portraits created at the time he was alive. 
  4. "The Bible Translator Who Shook Henry VIII," by Dr. Donald Dean Smeeton. Published in Christian History Magazine in 1987, now available on the Christian History Institute website.
Jane Grey

Lady Jane Grey, undated engraving by W. Holl. The Print Collector/Heritage-Images/Imagestate.
  1. Encyclopedia Britannica article
  2. "Lady Jane's Proclamation," article by Dan Graves for Christianity.com. Published June 2007.
  3. New World Encyclopedia article about Lady Jane Grey.
  4. This is a virtual tour of important places from Lady Jane Grey's life, with stories about her accompanying pictures. The tour was created by The History Press, a publishing house for academic books.
  5. "Lady Jane Grey, England's forgotten Queen," a blog post by the British Library about Lady Grey and an upcoming BBC miniseries about her. The trailer for the miniseries is available.  
Jeanne d' Albret

Portrait in charcoal and sanguine on paper of Jeanne d'Albret, Queen of Navarre. Recueil. Portraits dessinés de la Cour de France, 1565.
  1. Project Continua Encyclopedia article about Jeanne d'Albret.
  2. "Reformed Royalty: The Strength of Queen Jeanne d'Albret" by Marilyn B. Manzer. Published by the Center for Reformed Theology and Apologetics, 2010. 
  3. "Reformation Women: Jeanne D’Albre" by Rebecca VanDoodewaard. This article was published by Tabletalk Magazine in December 2017.
  4. "Jeanne d'Albret's Penalties," article by Dan Graves for Christianity.com. Published May 2007.
Johann Tetzel

Johann Tetzel, engraving by N. Brühl after a contemporary portrait. Archiv für Kunst und Geschichte, Berlin.
  1. Encyclopedia Britannica article.
  2. Encyclopedia article in New Advent, a Catholic encyclopedia.
  3. "Lineage Journey" YouTube episode (5 minutes) about Tetzel, Luther, and the 95 Theses, by the North England Conference of SDA.
  4. "Reformation 500: Johann Tetzel" article and Reformation timeline, by Concordia Seminary in St. Louis.
John Calvin

John Calvin. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. (Digital File Number: cph 3b19375).
  1. Encyclopedia Britannica article.
  2. Encyclopedia article in New Advent, a Catholic encyclopedia.
  3. "Lineage Journey" YouTube three-episode playlist (approx 15 minutes) about Calvin, by the North England Conference of SDA.
  4. Calvin College article about their namesake, John Calvin. See the end of the article for a great "suggested readings" list.
John Wycliff

Portrait of John Wycliff by Thomas Kirkby (1775-1848).
  1. Encyclopedia Britannica article. 
  2. Christianity Today article
  3. New Advent Catholic Encyclopedia entry.
  4. British Library Biography of John Wycliff. 
Subject Specialist
Picture: Katy Van Arsdale

Katy Van Arsdale
Special Collections Librarian
Tel: 965-6244

Jan Hus

Hus by an unknown artists, 16th century.
  1. Encyclopedia Brittanica article. 
  2. New Advent Catholic Encyclopedia article
  3. Reformation 500 article and timeline that places Jan Hus in context. 
  4. Short introduction and reproduction of two letters written by Jan Hus to people in power. 
John Knox

Portrait of John Knox by William Holl, 1860. From the Welsh Portrait Collection at the National Library of Wales
  1. Encyclopedia Britannica article. 
  2. New Advent Catholic Encyclopedia article. 
  3. Article and timeline of events around Knox’s life, published by Christianity Today. 
  4. Tudor Times article about places where Knox traveled. 
  5. World Heritage site information about Knox’s supposed home in Edinburgh, Scotland. 
Katharina von Bora

Portrait of Katharina von Bora by Lucas Cranach the Elder, 1528. Oil on panel.
  1. "Katharina von Bora Luther," a blog post by Dr. Jack Gilcrease on the Lutheran church website celebrating 500 years of Reformation. Published December 20, 2016.
  2. "The Characters: Luther's Wife," a page on PBS.org about Katharina von Bora.
  3. "Giving Credit to Katharina von Bora (Katie Luther, First Lady of the Reformation)," an article by Dr. Ruth A. Tucker, written for Zondervan Academic. Published March 29, 2017.
  4. "'An Enigmatic Woman?' How Katharina von Bora has been reinvented through time." Historian Gabriele Jancke studies how Martin Luther’s wife has been perceived over the past 500 years. Published by the University of Berlin on December 19, 2016.
Marguerite de Navarre

Portrait of Marguerite de Navarre by an unknown artist, 16th century.
  1. Encyclopedia Britannica article. 
  2. Poetry Foundation biography of Queen Marguerite, as well as an introduction to the poetry she wrote.  
  3. Online exhibit of Queen Marguerite’s life and writings, created by the University of Virginia library 
  4. Article about women of the Reformation, published by Tabletalk Magazine in November 2017. 
Marie Dentiere

Marie Dentiere's name on the Reformation Wall in Geneva, Switzerland.
  1. Oxford Bibliographies biography of Marie Dentiere. 
  2. Brief biography of Dentiere that discusses her written works. Prepared by the Museum of Protestantism. 
  3. An article about Dentiere and her place on the Reformation Wall in Geneva, written by Dr. Trevor Morrow. 
  4. Marie Dentiere’s Epistle to Marguerite de Navarre. This ebook is available through the PUC Library. 
Mary Queen of Scots

Portrait of Mary Stuart by François Clouet, 1558-60.
  1. Encyclopedia Britannica article. 
  2. This in-depth look at Mary’s life is from a national British database of biographies
  3. Several short BBC history videos about Queen Mary (average 2-3 minutes long). 
  4. Smithsonian Magazine article (published December 2018) about Queen Mary and her relationship to Elizabeth Tudor. 
  5. This BBC history article covers the murder of Queen Mary’s husband and the conspiracies that claimed she was involved in the plot. 
  6. Text of an interview between John Knox and Queen Mary, taken from a book of Reformation history that Knox wrote. 
Mary Tudor

Portrait of Mary, circa 1554, by Antonis Mor. Museo del Prado Catalog no. P02108 [2].
  1. Encyclopedia Britannica article
  2. Encyclopedia article in New Advent, a Catholic encyclopedia. 
  3. "Ridley and Latimer Light a Candle," YouTube episode (5.5 minutes) about Queen Mary, by the North England Conference of SDA. 
  4. "Eight Things You May Not Know about Mary I," by the History Channel. Published May, 2016.
Menno Simons

Menno Simons, engraving by Christopher van Sichem, 1605–08. Courtesy of the Mennonite Library and Archives, North Newton, Kansas.
  1. Encyclopedia Britannica article.
  2. Encyclopedia article on Mennonites, which discusses Menno Simons' role in establishing the church. Published in New Advent, a Catholic encyclopedia.
  3. Magazine article and timeline about the life of Menno Simons, from Christianity Today.
  4. Video overview (8 minutes) of the life of Menno Simons, created by a professor of Historical Theology at Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary.
Michael Sattler

Michael Sattler. Drawing by Ivan Moon, no date.
  1. Excerpt from Mennonites in Europe, a book published in 1995.
  2. Anabaptist-Mennonite Encyclopedia article on Sattler.
  3. Photographs and translation of the plaque found at Michael Sattler's memorial near Rottenburg, at the place where he was burned at the stake.
  4. A devotional about the life of Michael Sattler and his wife, found on BibleGateway.com. Published on April 19, 2013.
Olympia Fulvia Morata

Portrait of Olympia Morata by an unknown artist, probably before 1550.
  1. University of Chicago Library biography of Morata. 
  2. Short biography of Morata, written by the Brooklyn Museum. 
  3. This blog post includes some researched facts and makes recommendations for further reading as well. 
  4. Simonetta Carr writes a researched blog post about Morata’s feminism. 
  5. Here is an article about Morata’s influence on the Reformation. 
Philipp Melanchthon

Philipp Melanchthon, engraving by Albrecht Dürer, 1526. Kuperstichkabinett, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin—Preussischer Kulturbesitz.
  1. Encyclopedia Britannica article.
  2. Encyclopedia article in New Advent, a Catholic encyclopedia.
  3. "Who are the Reformers?" YouTube episode (5 minutes) about Melanchthon, by Westminster Seminary of California.
  4. "Melanchthon, the Number Two," article by Dr. Diane Severance for Christianity.com. Published April 28, 2010.
Ulrich Zwingli


Zwingli, detail of an oil portrait by Hans Asper, 1531; in the Kunstmuseum Winterthur, Switz. Courtesy of the Kunstmuseum Winterthur, Switz.; photograph, Schweizerisches Institut für Kunstwissenschaft.
  1. Encyclopedia Britannica article.
  2. Encyclopedia article in New Advent, a Catholic encyclopedia.
  3. "Lineage Journey" YouTube episode (5 minutes) about Zwingli, by the North England Conference of SDA.
  4. Christianity Today Magazine article.
William Tyndale

William Tyndale, Protestant reformer and Bible translator. Portrait from Foxe's Book of Martyrs.
  1. Encyclopedia Britannica article.
  2. "William Tyndale" YouTube episode (5.5 minutes) about Tyndale, by the North England Conference of SDA.
  3. View a copy and read about William Tyndale's New Testament in the British Library.
  4. "A Hero for the Information Age," an article about Tyndale that was printed in The Economist magazine on December 18, 2008.