What this guide is about
This guide introduces the library's primary and secondary sources on the Civil War and Reconstruction. Links below will lead you to books, articles, encyclopedias, and online exhibits on class-related topics. 

This guide does not list everything that is available in the library or online. As you research, you will need to use the library website or talk to a librarian to continue to gather sources for your project. The librarian can also help you search for primary sources online.

‚ÄčImage credit: The battle at Cedar Mountain, Aug. 9th, 1862. Charge of Crawford's brigade on the right. Lithograph by Currier & Ives. 
Reproduction number: LC-USZC4-4186 (color film copy transparency)
Memories of the Civil War & Reconstruction
Books, article, and websites in this list deal with the aftermath of the Civil War and Reconstruction, especially how it relates to the period long after the war, and up to the present day. When you search the library website or online for more information about the ways Americans remember and mythologize the Civil War, try pairing "Civil War" and/or "Reconstruction" with keywords like "Lost Cause," "memory," "revisionist history," "myth" or "mythology." 

Books & ebooks at the library
  1. Causes won, lost, and forgotten : how Hollywood & popular art shape what we know about the Civil War / Gary W. Gallagher.
  2. The Confederate and neo-Confederate reader : the "great truth" about the "lost cause" / edited by James W. Loewen and Edward H. Sebesta.
  3. Creating a Confederate Kentucky : The Lost Cause and Civil War Memory in a Border State. By Anne E. Marshall
  4. Ghosts of the confederacy : defeat, the lost cause, and the emergence of the New South, 1865 to 1913 / Gaines M. Foster.
  5. The Great Task Remaining Before Us : Reconstruction as America's Continuing Civil War. By Paul Cimbala and Randall M. Miller
  6. The imagined Civil War : popular literature of the North & South, 1861-1865 / Alice Fahs.
  7. Inventing Stonewall Jackson : a Civil War hero in history and memory / Wallace Hettle.
  8. Ku-Klux : the birth of the Klan during Reconstruction / Elaine Frantz Parsons.
  9. Loathing Lincoln : an American tradition from the Civil War to the present / John McKee Barr.
  10. The memory of the Civil War in American culture / edited by Alice Fahs & Joan Waugh.
  11. The myth of the lost cause and Civil War history / Gary W. Gallagher and Alan T. Nolan, editors.
  12. Race and reunion : the Civil War in American memory / by David W. Blight.
  13. This republic of suffering : death and the American Civil War / Drew Gilpin Faust.
  14. Sense of history : the place of the past in American life / David Glassberg.
  15. Slavery, Resistance, Freedom. By Gabor S. Boritt  and Scott Hancock
  16. The Southern past : a clash of race and memory / W. Fitzhugh Brundage.
  17. Stories of the South : race and the Reconstruction of southern identity, 1865-1915 / K. Stephen Prince.
The Birth of a Nation. By D.W. Griffith (1915). This silent film tells a mythologized and glorified story of the beginnings of the Ku Klux Klan. The film is available on YouTube in its entirety. More information about its inherent problems and troubled history is available from NPR and other sources

Gone with the Wind. By David O. Selznick (1939). This film is considered a classic example of Lost Cause nostalgia, and the story it tells has greatly contributed to the romaniticization of the Antebellum South and the Confederacy.

See this article "The Cinematic Lost Cause" by Eileen Jones for more films that were surprisingly sympathetic to the southern perspective. Some of the films she mentions, like Buster Keaton's "The General" are available on YouTube. The library can also order other films as you need them.

Primary Sources (see other sections of this guide for more)
The Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands...often referred to as the Freedmen's Bureau, was established in the War Department by an act of March 3, 1865. The Bureau supervised all relief and educational activities relating to refugees and freedmen, including issuing rations, clothing and medicine. The records available on this website can be browsed by state. Each state provides different kinds of documents that you can study to track what life was like for newly freed African Americans during Reconstruction. 

The Constitution of the United Daughters of the Confederacy. This digitized document is the foundation for UDC, which was established in 1894 in order to erect statues of Confederate soldiers and advance the Lost Cause movement. For many more UDC convention programs, pamphlets, and convention minutes, click the link and scroll to the bottom of the page. 

In Motion: The African-American Migration Experience presents more than 16,500 pages of texts, 8,300 illustrations, and more than 60 maps. The website is organized around thirteen defining migrations (such as the move from south to north after the Civil War) that have formed and transformed African America and the nation.

Sample articles
Burkhardt, Patrick. 2011. "The Lost Cause Ideology and Civil War Memory at the Semicentennial: A Look at the Confederate Monument in St. Louis." Confluence (2150-2633) 16-25. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost(accessed September 11, 2017). PDF here.

Crankshaw, Ned, Joseph E. Brent, and Maria Campbell Brent. 2016. "The Lost Cause and Reunion in the Confederate Cemeteries of the North." Landscape Journal 35, no. 1: 1-21. Business Source Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed September 11, 2017). PDF here

Rathgeb, Jody. 1998. "Attic of the lost cause." Civil War Times Illustrated 37, no. 2: 16. MAS Ultra - School Edition, EBSCOhost (accessed September 11, 2017). HTML full text here. 

Winsboro, Irvin D. S. "The Confederate Monument Movement as a Policy Dilemma for Resource Managers of Parks, Cultural Sites, and Protected Places: Florida as a Case Study." George Wright Forum 33, no. 2 (September 2016): 217. Complementary Index, EBSCOhost (accessed September 11, 2017). PDF here. pdf
Primary Sources: Documents
Explore digitized collections about the Civil War and Reconstruction from libraries, archives, and museums. Collections are listed here by subject or format.

Slavery and Abolition
Born in Slavery: Slave Narratives from the Federal Writers’ Project, 1936–1938. 
Includes more than 2,300 first-person accounts, and more than 500 photographs.

Frederick Douglass Papers. 
A former slave and devout abolitionist, Douglass’s papers were digitized by the Library of Congress. They are searchable, and also can be browsed by date, and then narrowed by type, such as speeches or correspondence.

North American Slave Narratives. 
The University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill has a special collection dedicated to slave narratives. Not every manuscript is a primary document, but many are. 

Slavery and Abolition in the U.S.: Select Publications of the 1800s. 
Reflecting both sides of the slavery question, these publications from the 1800s include speeches, tracts, pamphlets, books, legal proceedings, religious sermons, and personal accounts.

Slaves and the Courts 1740–1860. From the Library of Congress’s American Memory Project this site consists of trials and cases, arguments, proceedings, and other historical works of importance that relate to the prosecution and defense of slavery as an institution. The collection contains more than 100 pamphlets and books published between 1772 and 1889.

Personal Experiences in Diaries and Letters
The Civil War Collection at Michigan State University. 
A huge online collection of scanned letters, newspaper articles, images, photographs, diaries, and much more, filled with the stories of Michigan soldiers.

The Civil War Collection at Penn State. 
Penn State has a rich digitized special collection. These include diaries, newspapers, and other ephemera. No transcriptions are available for the diaries, but the scanned pages are clean and easy to read.

Civil War Diaries and Letters at the University of Iowa. 
Browse a list of scanned diaries and letters from the University of Iowa Libraries, some of which currently have transcriptions, but not all. You can also browse by year to get the materials for a particular time.

Civil War Diaries and Letters Collections. 
A collection of diaries and letters from Auburn University, covering both sides of the war; each item is scanned and transcribed.

Civil War on the Western Border: The Missouri-Kansas Conflict, 1855–1865. 
A collection of letters, photographs, and diary entries that document a lesser-known conflict of the time. The resources are scanned and transcribed. When possible, the letters also show connections to other related people and events. This site is a result of collaboration with Kansas City-area libraries, historical societies, and museums.

The Civil War: Women and the Home-front. 
Duke University has put together this study guide relating to women’s role during the war. Use the tab labeled “Primary Sources Online,” which includes digitized diaries and letters, as well as outside links to other institutions’ collections. The online papers include a collection from Rose O’Neal Greenhow, a famed Confederate spy. Other letters include those written by African-American slaves, describing their living conditions in the South.

First Person Narratives of the American South. 
Everyday people’s voices speak through their diaries, autobiographies, ex-slave accounts, and memoirs on this site, which is organized alphabetically or by subject.

Library of Congress collections on Civil War and Reconstruction, 1861-1877. 
Links to all Library of Congress digital collections on the topic of the Civil War and Reconstruction.

Saint Mary’s College of California Special Collections. 
Saint Mary’s College has a small, select special collection containing letters from a private in the Fifth Vermont regiment, and a diary from a captain of the Sixteenth Michigan regiment. The collections are digitized and transcribed, and the site is well illustrated.

South Carolina and the Civil War. 
The site brings together primary sources by eyewitnesses from the holdings of the University of South Carolina. Included on the site are diaries, sheet music, maps, letters, and photographs. The collections are scanned and viewable, but with little transcription or description.

Valley of the Shadow. 
Thousands of documents are accessible that compare life in two towns during the war: one in Virginia and one in Pennsylvania. These documents include letters, diaries, maps, newspaper accounts, and other sources.

Wisconsin Goes to War: Our Civil War Experience. 
The University of Wisconsin is in the process of digitizing letters, diaries, poetry, and other writings from Wisconsin’s soldiers. The first phase of the collection consists of 630 pages of materials dating from the years 1861 – 1866.

A young Dutchman views post-Civil War America [electronic resource] : Reconstruction-era diary of Claude August Crommelin / Claude August Crommelin ; translated by Augustus J. Veenendaal, Jr. ; edited with an introduction by Augustus J. Veenendaal, Jr., and H. Roger Grant.  

Presidential Papers
Abraham Lincoln Papers at the Library of Congress. 
Approximately 20,000 documents, which include correspondence with enclosures of newspaper clippings, drafts of speeches, notes, pamphlets, and other printed material by Lincoln, are available. Most of the material dates from the presidential years. Searchable by keyword or just browse the collection.

Andrew Johnson's Orders and Messages.
Selected digital copies of President Johnson's papers, 1865-1869.

James Buchanan's Orders and Messages.
Selected digital copies of President Buchanan's papers, 1857-1861.

The Papers of Jefferson Davis. 
A selection of documents from the published papers of the same name that includes speeches, reports, and correspondence. The documents are organized by volume with brief annotations.

Ulysses S. Grant Presidential Library. 
This site from Mississippi State University contains the first 31 volumes of The Papers of Ulysses S. Grant, published by Southern Illinois University Press, and includes his military papers from the Civil War. Also included are photographs and prints from the life of Grant, including photographs from the war. The volumes are searchable and browsable.

The Military
Antietam on the Web. 
This site looks at the Battle of Sharpsburg (Antietam), highlighting generals and other officers, battle maps, and important background information. This site also includes the transcriptions of reports from the officers from both sides of the war, as well as excerpts from diaries and letters of some of the soldiers who survived.

The Civil War Archive: Letters Home from the Civil War. 
A collection of letters from both Union and Confederate soldiers, organized by name and regiment.

Making of America: Official Records of the Union and Confederate Navies. 
The Making of America site is an excellent source of primary documents, and this one features the orders, reports, and correspondence from the Union and Confederate navies. The scanned pages of the 30-volume set from the Government Printing Office are annotated and arranged chronologically. The collection is searchable. This is an essential resource for any study of naval operations in the war.

Manuscripts of the American Civil War. 
This collection from the University of Notre Dame contains seven soldier’s diaries, which have been carefully scanned and transcribed. The soldiers represented are from both sides of the war. The diaries highlight their day-to-day experiences—from the mundane to the terrifying.

The Museum of the Confederacy. 
Various primary sources are accessible, including a collection of photographs, documents, and artifacts relating to Lee and Jackson, the “Roll of Honor and Battle Accounts” from Confederate soldiers, and a searchable database of their collections.

Virginia Military Institute Archives. 
The Virginia Military Institute archives provide access to the full-text of more than 75 letters, diaries, manuscripts, and other ephemera of soldiers from both armies.

The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies. 
These 70 scanned volumes contain the formal reports for both the Union and Confederate armies, including correspondence and orders. The volumes are arranged chronologically and identified with a brief annotation. The volumes are searchable. This is an essential resource for anyone doing serious research on battles, regiments, and the progress of the war.
Primary Sources: Music
The Civil War songbook : complete original sheet music for 37 songs / selected, and with an introd., by Richard Crawford.

Civil War Trust: Songs of the 1860s.
Site includes background information, lyrics, and playable files of wartime music.

Library of Congress Civil War Sheet Music Collection. 
The Civil War Sheet Music Collection at the Library of Congress consists of over 2500 pieces culled from the Library's collections. The collection is limited to music about the war and therefore does not include every piece of sheet music published during the war. In addition to the music, many of the covers are worth noting. They treat a variety of subjects ranging from conventional portraits of generals to battlefield scenes to the popular image of Jefferson Davis escaping in petticoats.

Singing soldiers (The spirit of the sixties) ; a history of the Civil War in song ; selections and historical commentary: Paul Glass ; musical arrangements for piano and guitar: Louis C. Singer ; foreword by John Hope Franklin.

Tramp! Tramp! Tramp!, or, The prisoner's hope / [words and music] by Geo. F. Root.
Primary Sources: Newspapers
Brooklyn Daily Eagle (1841–1955). 
An important daily newspaper, the 
Eagle was unusual for its time since it covered national as well as regional news. The archive is searchable and can be browsed by date.

Chronicling America Unrestricted Resource Some full text available
Search America's historic newspaper pages from 1836-1922 or use the U.S. Newspaper Directory to find information about American newspapers published between 1690-present. Available from the Library of Congress.
This Library of Congress site offers access to multiple newspapers from both the Confederate and Union states. Over 1,400 newspapers are in the archive, but not all of them are from the Civil War years. Examples of newspaper titles include: 
Memphis Appeal (1857–1886), Chattanooga Rebel (1862–1865), New York Sun (1859–1916), and New York Daily Tribune (1842–1866). 

Harper’s Weekly. 
The archive of this popular weekly newspaper highlights only the Civil War years. The site is searchable and is arranged chronologically with thumbnails of the front pages. All pages from the 1861–1865 Civil War period have been scanned, including the engravings and illustrations. 

The New York Times
Searchable full text archives available after creating an account. To create an account, ask a librarian for the log in information.

Richmond Daily Dispatch (1860–1865). 
This paper was published from the Confederate capital [Richmond, Virginia] and has a digitized and searchable online archive of 1,384 issues.

Secession-Era Editorials. 
This site contains transcribed editorials from newspapers in the 1850s. The specific issues discussed are the Nebraska Bill debates, the caning attack on Senator Charles Sumner by Representative Preston Brooks, John Brown’s Raid on Harper’s Ferry, and the Dred Scott decision. 
Primary Sources: Photographs, Artwork, & Maps
Photographs and Maps
Civil War Political Cartoons
Dartmouth College presents an online exhibit of fifteen political cartoons with commentary and explanation beside each image. Click the thumbnails to enlarge the images for closer examination. 

Civil War Glass Negatives. 
Approximately 7,000 portraits and battleground images are available. The collection is from the glass negatives of Mathew Brady and Alexander Gardner, as well as from photographic collections that were purchased by the Library of Congress in 1943. Browse by broad subjects or search by keyword.

Civil War Maps. 
Nearly 3,000 maps are included in this online composite of three collections from the Library of Congress, the Virginia Historical Society, and the Library of Virginia. Search by keyword and narrow with the facets to the left of the results page.

Library of Congress: Photographs of African Americans During the Civil War
This reference aid lists photographs in the Civil War Photograph Collection that include African Americans. Photographs like this are rare and sometimes difficult to find. See the link for more explanation.  

Library of Congress: Photographs of Women During the Civil War 
This collection of photographs show women in Civil War-era scenes. Women appear in the background of some images and may not be visible until the larger image is displayed.

National Archives Pictures of the Civil War. 
The National Archives has organized the Mathew Brady and Alexander Gardner photographs into broad categories for easy browsing.

Pictorial Americana
This Library of Congress collection features mostly lithographs and other illustrations of war scenes printed in Civil War publications.
Subject Specialist
Picture: Katy Van Arsdale

Katy Van Arsdale
Special Collections Librarian
Tel: 965-6244

Book Search
Search for in
Books and ebooks
Available at PUC: Use keywords to search the library catalog or scroll through lists of books by subject. Most of the links below will open a list of narrower topics. Clicking a narrower topic will open a list of books you can check out or read full text online.

Antislavery movements -- United States -- History.
Slavery -- United States -- History.
United States -- History -- Civil War, 1861-1865
Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865
Reconstruction (U.S. history, 1865-1877)
Southern States -- Politics and government -- 1865-1950.

Reference Sources
These are examples of reference sources available through the PUC library. You can search the library website for more options.

The Underground Railroad : a reference guide / Kerry Walters.

The Civil War source book / Philip Katcher.

Flora and fauna of the Civil War : an environmental reference guide [electronic resource] / Kelby Ouchley.

The Library of Congress Civil War desk reference / Margaret E. Wagner, Gary W. Gallagher, and Paul Finkelman, editors ; foreword by James M. McPherson.

Silent sentinels : a reference guide to the artillery at Gettysburg [electronic resource] / George W. Newton.

The value of a dollar : prices and incomes in the United States, 1860-2009 / by Scott Derks.

The era of reconstruction, 1865-1877, by Kenneth M. Stampp.

Reconstruction era reference library [electronic resource] / Kelly King Howes, Roger Matuz and Bridget Hall Grumet ; Lawrence W. Baker, project editor.

American Civil War reference library [electronic resource] / Kevin Hillstrom and Laurie Collier Hillstrom ; Lawrence W. Baker, editor.

Britannica Academic: The Online Encyclopedia Restricted Resource Some full text available Resource contains images ‚Äč

Encyclopedia of the American Civil War : a political, social, and military history / David S. Heidler and Jeanne T. Heidler, editors ; foreword by James M. McPherson

Maps & Atlases
Civil War atlas

Atlas of American history / Kenneth T. Jackson, editor ; James Truslow Adams, editor in chief, original ed.

Biography in Context (Gale) Restricted Resource Some full text available

Southern Black leaders of the Reconstruction era / edited by Howard N. Rabinowitz.

Who was who in the Civil War / by Stewart Sifakis.
Seventh-day Adventists & the Civil War
"American Civil War and SDA Church." A bibliography compiled by blacksdahistory.org. Search for these books in the PUC catalog or Link+ by title or author.

The bearing of arms : the record of Seventh-day Adventists. A history of conscientious objection.

The Encyclopedia of Arkansas History and Culture: Seventh-day Adventists. Encyclopedia article that discusses how the Civil War and Reconstruction slowed the growth of the SDA church in Arkansas. 

The Free State of Jones
Several books and a 2016 film featuring Matthew McConaughey explore the story of the Free State of Jones, an area in Mississippi that resisted the Confederacy. Adventist missionary Anna Knight descended from the family that founded the Free State of Jones. 
Free state of Jones [Blu-Ray and DVD]
The free state of Jones : Mississippi's longest civil war / Victoria E. Bynum.
The free state of Jones ; and The echo of the black horn : two sides of the life and activities of Captain Newt Knight / Thomas Jefferson Knight and Ethel Knight; foreword by Jim Kelly.

Rise of the remnant : the formation of the Seventh-Day Adventist Church from the era of slavery and the Civil War / by Peter K. Chung. A masters thesis covering the history of Adventism before, during, and after the war.

The Spirit of Prophecy and Military Service. Manuscript prepared by W. C. White, D. E. Robinson, and A. L. White giving a carefully documented account of how Seventh-day Adventists met the Civil War crisis as it related to the draft, the Sabbath, and the bearing of arms.

Vegetarian America : a history / Karen Iacobbo and Michael Iacobbo ; foreword by Andrew Linzey. Includes chapters about SDA eating habits before, during, and after the Civil War.

The 19th century odyssey of John and Judith : from the battlefields of the civil war to spiritual battlefields on the Texas frontier / G. Tom Carter. “[This book provides] intimate glimpses into the heart and mind of a common soldier and his wife during the Civil War and helpful insights into the early dynamics of Adventism on its Texan frontier. These dynamics dealt with church organization, righteousness by faith, reaching out to African-Americans, race relations, the leading of the Spirit of Prophecy, love and unity in the church, and God’s providential guidance in beginning the work of the Adventist Church in Texas, as well as in the personal lives of John and Judith.” --George R. Knight 
Citing Sources
Chicago manual of style:
Official website Quick Guide
Guide to the Chicago manual from OWL at Purdue

You can browse the table of contents on the Chicago manual of style's official website. To read further, check the library copies, linked below.

The Chicago manual of style, 15th ed.

The Chicago manual of style, 16th ed.
Research FAQs
Links to common research questions and related guides.

How to Select a Research Topic 
Evaluating Resources (from OWL at Purdue)
Avoiding Plagiarism: Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing (from OWL at Purdue)
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